Through successive experimental arrangements, Tesla discovered several facts concerning the production of his effect. First, the cause was undoubtedly found in the abruptness of charging. It was in the switch closure, the very instant of “closure and break”, which thrust the effect out into space. The effect was definitely related to time, IMPULSE time. Second, Tesla found that it was imperative that the charging process occurred in a single impulse. No reversal of current was permissible, else the effect would not manifest. In this, Tesla made succinct remarks describing the role of capacity in the spark-radiative circuit. He found that the effect was powerfully strengthened by placing a capacitor between the disrupter and the dynamo. While providing a tremendous power to the effect, the dielectric of the capacitor also served to protect the dynamo windings. Not yet sure of the process at work in this phenomenon, Tesla sought the empirical understanding required for its amplification and utilization. He had already realized the significance of this unexpected effect. The idea of bringing this strange and wondrous new phenomenon to its full potential already suggested drilling new possibilities in his mind. He completely abandoned research and development of alternating current systems after this event intimating that a new technology was about to unfold.
“WE do not need to do this with high voltage as it works on any level.”
The effect could also be greatly intensified to new and more powerful levels by raising the voltage, quickening the switch “make-break” rate, and shortening the actual time of switch closure. Thus far, Tesla employed rotating contact switches to produce his unidirectional impulses. When these mechanical impulse systems failed to achieve the greatest possible effects, Tesla sought a more “automatic” and powerful means. He found this “automatic switch” in special electrical arc dischargers. The high voltage output of a DC generator was applied to twin conductors through his new arc mechanism, a very powerful permanent magnet sitting crosswise to the discharge path. The discharge arc was automatically and continually “blown out” by this magnetic field.
Imperative toward obtaining the desired rare effect, the capacitor and its connected wire lines had to be so chosen as to receive and discharge the acquired electrostatic charge in unidirectional staccato fashion. The true Tesla circuit very much resembles a pulse jet, where no back pressure ever stops the onrushing flow. Electrostatic charge rises to a maximum, and is discharged much more quickly. The constant application of high voltage dynamo pressure to the circuit insures that continual successions of “charge-rapid discharge’ are obtained. It is then and only then that the Tesla Effect is observed. Pulses literally flow through the apparatus from the dynamo. The capacitor, disruptor, and its attached wire lines, behave as the flutter valve. ( The dynamo or the storage battery does the same thing with the correct switching)
Tesla found that impulse duration alone defined the effect of each succinct spectrum. These effects were completely distinctive, endowed with strange additional qualities never purely experienced in Nature. Moreover, Tesla observed distinct color changes in the discharge space when each impulse range had been reached or crossed. Never before seen discharge coloration’s did not remain a mystery for long. Trains of impulses, each exceeding 0.1 millisecond duration, produced pain and mechanical pressures. In this radiant field, objects visibly vibrated and even moved as the force field drove them along. Thin wires, exposed to sudden bursts of the radiant field, exploded into vapor. Pain and physical movements ceased when impulses of 100 microseconds or less were produced. These latter features suggested weapon systems of frightful potentials.
With impulses of 1.0 microsecond duration, strong physiological heat was sensed. Further decreases in impulse brought spontaneous illuminations capable of filling rooms and vacuum globes with white light. At these impulse frequencies, Tesla was able to stimulate the appearance of effects which are normally admixed among the electromagnetic energies inherent in sunlight. Shorter impulses produced cool room penetrating breezes, with an accompanying uplift in mood and awareness. There were no limits in this progression toward impulses of diminished duration. None of these impulse energies could be duplicated through the use of high frequency harmonic alternations, those which Sir Oliver Lodge popularized, and which later was embodied in Marconi Wave Radio. Few could reproduce these effects because so few understood the absolute necessity of observing those parameters set by Tesla.
” This unidirectional succession of charge-discharge impulses causes a very strange field to expand outward,”
Tesla’s Discovery and Application
of Radiant Energy
Of all the great inventions and discoveries of Nikola Tesla, nothing stood out with greater potential benefit to the whole of humanity than his discovery of Radiant Energy in 1889. The series of observations that led to the discovery of Radiant energy initially grew out of experiments that Tesla had conducted in an attempt to duplicate the results that Heinrich Hertz had claimed to achieve in affirming the existence of electromagnetic waves, the discovery of which Hertz announced in 1887. While replicating Hertz’s experiments, Tesla experimented with violently abrupt DC electrical discharges and discovered a new force in the process. Only after conducting exhaustive experimental trials for the next three years, did Tesla announce this stupendous discovery in a paper published in December, 1892, entitled “The Dissipation of Electricity”. Incredibly, most academicians of the day completely missed the mark in understanding the true significance of his paper. Noted scientists such as Sir Oliver Lodge, mistakenly thought that Tesla was referring to high frequency AC electricity in the operation of the Tesla Transformer, a huge blunder that remains to this day in the misnaming and misinterpretation of the Tesla Coil. The transformer that Tesla referred to in the 1892 paper did not operate on magnetic/electric field induction created by alternating currents. It operated in an entirely new domain of physics based on abrupt discharges of electrostatic potentials and the subsequent release of kinetic Radiant Energy from the omnipresent ether. Tesla was now operating under entirely new rules which he referred to as “dynamic” electro-static forces and had, by now, completely abandoned any further interest in the AC waveform. The genesis of the Lodge misunderstanding, however, began a few years earlier with the publication of certain mathematical formulas by a brilliant Scotsman named James Clerk Maxwell.
Hertz used the damped oscillating currents in a dipole antenna, triggered by a high-voltage electrical capacitive spark discharge, as his source of radio waves. His detector in some experiments was another dipole antenna connected to a narrow spark gap. A small spark in this gap signified detection of the radio wave. When he added cylindrical reflectors behind his dipole antennas, Hertz could detect radio waves about 20 metres from the transmitter in his laboratory. He did not try to transmit further because he wanted to prove electromagnetic theory, not to develop wireless communications.
Hertz was uninterested in the practical importance of his experiments. He stated that “It’s of no use whatsoever … this is just an experiment that proves Maestro Maxwell was right – we just have these mysterious electromagnetic waves that we cannot see with the naked eye. But they are there.” Asked about the ramifications of his discoveries, Hertz replied, “Nothing, I guess.” Hertz also stated, “I do not think that the wireless waves I have discovered will have any practical application.” The art of radio was left to other to implement into a practical useful form. His discoveries would later be taken up by entrepreneurs looking to make their fortunes. Marconi’s 1895 experiments followed Hertz’s work (among others) by using a spark source in what became known as a spark-gap transmitter.
Using mathematical models, James Clerk Maxwell had earlier suggested that two different types of electrical disturbances could possibly exist in Nature. One type was a longitudinal electric wave which required alternating concentrations of densified and rarefied pulsations of electrostatic fields that moved along a single vector (today, we refer to these as standing waves or scalar waves). Maxwell ultimately rejected this idea because he was convinced that this type of wave propagation was impossible to achieve, but his assumption was erroneous and would later portend formidable consequences for Tesla and the world at large.
Maxwell’s second wave postulation was that of a transverse electromagnetic wave that exhibited a rapid alternation of electric fields along a fixed axis that radiated away from its point of origin at the speed of light and was detectable at great distances. Maxwell had more faith in the existence of this type of wave and encouraged experimenters to look in this direction. It was the discovery of this type of wave that Hertz had laid claim to, but Tesla was meticulous and fastidious in replicating Hertz’s experimental parameters and he could not obtain the results claimed by Hertz.
Tesla discovered a fundamental flaw in Hertz’s experiment: Hertz had failed to take into account he presence of air in his experiments. Hertz had mistakenly identified electrostatic inductions or electrified shockwaves as true electromagnetic waves. Tesla was saddened to bring this news to the distinguished academician, but felt scientific honesty was paramount if progress was to be achieved. Tesla visited Hertz in Germany and personally demonstrated the experimental error to him. Hertz agreed with Tesla and had planned to withdraw his claim, but reputations, political agendas, national pride, and above all, powerful financial interests, intervened in that decision and set the stage for a major rift in the ‘accepted’ theories that soon became transformed into the fundamental “laws” of the electric sciences that have held sway in industry and the halls of academia to the present day.
The blue spike phenomena
Tesla’s introduction to the phenomena of Radiant Energy began with early observations by linesmen working for Thomas Edison, Tesla’s former employer
Before Tesla’s invention of the Polyphase AC generator became the industry standard and overtook Thomas Edison’s use of DC generators, the DC electrical system was the only system available to deliver electricity to America’s homes and factories. Due to the resistance offered by long transmission lines, Edison had to produce very high DC voltages from his generators in order to deliver enough voltage and current to its final destination. He also had to provide additional ‘pumping’ stations along the way to boost the sagging voltage which dwindled from line losses. A curious anomaly occurred in the very first instant of throwing the power switch at the generating station: In Purple/blue colored spikes radiated in all directions along the axis of the power lines for just a moment.addition, a stinging, ray-like shocking sensation was felt by those who stood near the transmission lines. In some cases, when very large DC voltages surged from the generators, the “stinging” sensation was so great that occasionally a blue spike jumped from the line and grounded itself through a workman, killing him in the process.
Tesla realized almost immediately that electrons were not responsible for such a phenomena because The blue spike phenomena ceased as soon as the current stated flowing in the lines. Something else was happening just before the electrons had a chance to move along the wire. At the time, no one seemed to be very interested in discovering why these dramatic elevations in static electrical potential were taking place, but rather, engineering design efforts were focused on eliminating and quenching this strange anomaly which was considered by everyone to be a nuisance-except Tesla. Tesla viewed it as a powerful, yet unknown form of energy which needed to be understood and harnessed if possible. The phenomena only exhibited itself in the first moment of switch closure, before the electrons could begin moving. There seemed to be a “bunching” or “choking” effect at play, but only briefly. Once the electrons began their movement within the wire, all would return to normal. What was this strange energy that was trying to liberate itself so forcefully at the moment of switch closure? .
The following recital on Tesla’s work with Radiant Energy is an excerpt from the book, Secrets of Cold War Technology by Gerry Vassilatos, pages 86-93.
The “fountain effects” which surrounded his station are not responsible for the ever-growing power observed by Tesla. This was the result of an incoming aetheric supply for which his Transmitter gave low-resistance passage. The incoming aetheric flow preferred the transmitter terminal to adjacent, more resistant rock. This gradual flow process soon evidenced itself in magnification effects, ever increasing volumes of flowing aether being measured in his system. Some have argued that Tesla merely stored energy in the earth, extracting it for use later. This is a basic error, the result of imagining the Colorado Springs experiment to be one consisting entirely of electrical effects. It is in this light alone that we may comprehend the evident anomalous magnification of aetheric phenomena in his Colorado Springs photographs.
Once aetheric energy had been obtained from space, it had to be conveyed to consumers. Tesla had arranged for the automatic activation of aether-rebroadcast circuits in the station. The down pouring aether was automatically shunted to side circuits through capacitors. In these side branches, aether pulsed through dielectrics and expanded over the surfaces of his smaller coils. Thus stimulated to more rapid pulsation rates, they were ready for “rebroadcast”. Being rebroadcast away from the station through large vacuum globes, poised on elevated platforms, these were the aetheric pulsations, which would be utilized in home and industry. Simple and compact receivers would be established in every home and factory, set to receive aetheric current through the ground. Tests were thrilling. The distant appliances, lamps and motors responded to the powerful pulsations, as if they were physically connected to the station by wire. A small house-like structure was established some 26 miles away from the station. In it, an aetheric power receiver was tuned to one of the rebroadcast rates. The 200 lamps housed within this structure, each of 50 watts rating, all remained brilliantly illuminated throughout the test runs. This apparently stimulated enough excitement and concern for word of this development to get back east.
Engineers were enraged. Those who had missed his most early shift from alternations to impulses, failed to comprehend the vast distinction between “stationary waves” and ” standing waves”. The quizzical use of specific terms such as these was a Tesla trademark, one designed to puzzle the minds of those who criticized him the most. With the exception of a very few colleagues who continually made related discoveries in aether physics, most academes had chosen to remain totally ignorant of the new study area. This for example was the case with the Teslian use of the term “frequency” and of “resonance” words which had completely different meanings for Tesla. Teslian “frequency” refers to the repetition of pulses per second. Teslian “resonance” refers to conditions in which aether flows with little or no resistance through systems, whether proximal or widely separated.
Photographs, which Tesla sent to his “financiers”, were analyzed and reexamined repeatedly for their encrypted meaning. None could decipher the cunning puzzle which Tesla had set before them. Tesla stated that photographs of the aetheric white fire streamers required several minutes’ exposure time before registering the faintest sort of impression. Most of the plates were therefore the results of more than 20 minutes’ exposure time. There are a very few plates which, though stated to be the result of “one brief switch closure”, are covered with dense, thick white streamers. One fraction of a second closure on the system switch resulted in a twenty-minute or more aether avalanche. Magnifying Transformers continued discharging long after the initial impulse had been withdrawn.
AETHER POWER RECEIVERS
Tesla returned to New York exultant. He was about to establish a new world precedent. Venture capitalists were everywhere, looking for their opportunity to enter the “new energy” market. Unknown to Tesla, his station, its tower, the large coils, the capacitors, and all the other marvelous apparatus, which demonstrated free aetheric power to the world, had been acquired for demolition. Tesla simply went forward, securing new funds from Morgan and others toward the development of a fully functional industry sized station in Long Island. Wardenclyffe Station. Wardenclyffe would be his greatest achievement. Here he would broadcast power to the world, along with a communications network, which could span the globe with innumerable available channels. Aether wave communications. Several stations would augment the power of this first station, from which he proposed to rebroadcast 10,000 horsepower. The Station, a wonderful visionary structure, which dominated the view of Shoreham, Long Island, was not quite complete before it too was seized by court injunctions and torn down.
Tesla was summoned to appear in court. Mr. Leland Anderson who has since published a wonderful treatise with this transcript as the centerpiece has secured the amazing transcript of this proceeding. Tesla said he wept when he saw the ruined tower at Wardenclyffe. The train ride back from Shoreham was filled with tears and the recounting of every tragedy, which marked his life. But the dreams did not die there. In the absence of financial means to construct his gigantic stations, Tesla found ways to build small systems, which accomplished the very same objectives. Replacing the large overhead capacity terminal with material substitutes, radioactive metals in combination with other dense elements, Tesla was able to accrete and focus aether pulsations of super short duration.
Tesla was then plunged into a hellish time, where all but one would neither help nor hear him. Dr. John Hammond requested Tesla to be the permanent guest on his family estate. There, amid the family life of Hammond Castle, Tesla shared his dreams and technology. Together, he and Dr. Hammond developed the science of robots and remote guidance. Tesla, impoverished by the inhuman treatment wrought on him by the financial establishment, was nonetheless quite alive and valuable to those having singular ambition to dominate the world radio trade. For a very long time, Nikola Tesla was considered “out of circulation.”
But later years turned a kindlier edge toward him. Long after his principle foe had died, other sought him out. Employed by the Rockefellers in their RCA venture, Tesla was given the task of restructuring the now failing Marconi System. David Sarnoff did not permit Tesla the dignity of working under his own name! Nevertheless it was Tesla, not Sarnoff, who redesigned the insufficient RCA radio systems to sufficiently turn a profit for the owners. It is significant that Tesla was not allowed to change the basic design from wave radio to radiant communications. What he achieved required certain strange conversions within the wave radio circuitry, intensifying radiant signals until the operation was much improved, and then converting the amplified signals back to waves once again. All of this was achieved within the chassis, certain of which are now being studied. These Tesla experimental models are typical of the Tesla style, containing no resistors or other such components. These models use simple transmitter tubes and employ a great number of symmetrically disposed conical air coils.
While working for RCA under the name “Terbo”, Tesla maintained his two penthouse suites atop the Hotel New Yorker. One penthouse was his living quarters, the other a full-scale research laboratory. Tesla designed and built small compact and portable aether energy receivers, a developmental path, which he pursued to his passing. Tesla had long investigated the use of pure dielectric field energy, a stream of aether whose individual pulsations were so very ultra short that science had never found a means to harness the energy impulses. Tesla later held the opinion that dielectric current was composed of radiant particles, aetheric in nature. He therefore sought natural sources in which native dielectric fields could be used as they were, without the need for mammoth voltage “shocks” to stigmata aetheric currents. Tesla knew that if dielectric aether streams could be directly engaged, a true world of the future would be in his grasp. Furthermore, the mass-production of thousands and ten of thousands of such power receivers would be an unstoppable army. An army of miniatures, which could never be torn down.
The implications were fathomless. Tesla had found a truly new and wonderful approach to an old problem. Once because his technology had not yet grown to the level where this was possible, he had to settle for impressing the naturally prolific aether streams with “extra” pulsations. The Transmitter method was costly, gargantuan, and an easy target for those who hated the notion of a future world where dreams rule humanity. Dielectric energy fascinated Tesla. It was everywhere, a natural emanation whose potentials far out proportioned conventional notions of power. Indeed, the early conception of natural radioactivity as an energetic source was nothing in comparison to the potential power inherent in dielectric streams. The new technology would use ultra-short pulsing aether streams, energies that occupied most of his latter press conferences in latter years. Study had convinced Tesla that the apparently smooth and native force characteristic of dielectric field energy was actually a particulate flux, a succession of ultra-short impulses. The derivation of such an impulse train would solve all energy needs for eternity with an elegance far out-reaching his own
Of a truth, dielectric energy was native source of incredible proportion and virtually eternal duration. Able to use such a kinetic source, one could dispense entirely with the Power Transmitters necessary in stimulating and impressing “extra pulsations” on the aether flow. Tesla often defined the dielectric field as a natural flow of aether particles, one that seemed impossible to utilize through lack of appropriate resistive materials. In order to obtain momentum from the flowing particles of a dielectric field, one required special matter poised in equally special symmetries. The otherwise continuous flow could be absorbed directly, being exchanged to utilities, appliances, and other applications.Tesla had already considered the condition of charged particles, each representing a tightly constricted whorl of aether. The force necessarily exerted at close distances by such aetheric constrictions was incalculably large. Aetheric ponderance maintained particulate stability. Crystalline lattices were therefore places within which one could expect to find unexpected voltages. Indeed, the high voltages inherent in certain metallic lattices, intra-atomic field energies, are enormous. The close Coulomb gradient between atomic centers are electrostatic potentials reaching humanly unattainable levels. By comparison, the voltages, which Tesla once succeeded in releasing, were quite insignificant. In these balanced lattices, Tesla sought the voltages needed to initiate directed aetheric streams in matter. Once such a flow began, one could simply tap the stream for power. In certain materials, these aether streams might automatically produce the contaminating electrons, a source of energy for existing appliances. One could theoretically then “tailor” the materials needed to produce unexpected aetheric power with or without the attendant detrital particles. Tesla did mention the latent aetheric power of charge forces, the explosive potentials of bound aether, and the aetheric Power inherent in matter. In these studies, Tesla sought replacement for the 100,000,000 volt initiating pulses for the implementation of space aether.
Aether physics was a lost physics. Physics was hijacked early inthe 20th Century by alleged results of the Michelson-Morleyexperiment. The Michelson-Morley experiment assumed “aether” was matter. There is some confusion here. We know now that particles moving near the speed of light are measured as waves,that is energy, rather than as matter. Nevertheless, aether theory has been discredited among physicists who, in turn,discredit others who raise the subject. It is only through the efforts of “free energy devices” and free energy researchers that this knowledge is being returned to us. Without this aether theory, the reason these devices work cannot be explained at all. Rejection of aether theory allows these devices to be dismissed as”theoretically impossible” and so fraudulent by simple deduction.They are marginalized and dismissed as “perpetual motiondevices”. According to established physics, perpetual motion devices violate physical laws of conservation of energy. Without an aether theory as an explanation, they do violate laws of conservation of energy and so their detractors are able to simply dismiss them out of hand. The simple fact that some of these free energy devices actually work does not seem to bother these scientists in the least. Rather than change the theory to accommodate the observed facts, the facts are ignored and substituted by dogma. Whaether we like it or not, we are living in an energy Dark Age.
Instead of aether theory, we have all been led to focus upon Einstein and his Theories of Relativity. Two or three generations of scientists have wasted themselves on “trying to prove Einstein right”. This misguided thinking has resulted instagnation. One need go no further than the many “free energy” devices which have arisen to the level of notice in spite of accepted scientific theory to see that this statement is true.
Tesla’s Recent Patents
“Nikola Tesla has received several patents for a ‘Method of Intensifying and Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media.’ In one of these systems Tesla varies the potential point or region of the earth by imparting to it intermittent or alternating electrifications through one of the terminals of a suitable source of electrical disturbances which to heighten the effect, has its other terminal connected with an insulated body, preferably of large surface and at an elevation. Electrifications communicated to the earth spread in all directions, reaching a circuit which generally has its terminals arranged and connected similarly to those of the transmitting source and which operates upon a highly sensitive receiver.
Another of Telsa’s methods is based upon the fact that the atmospheric air, which behaves as an excellent insulator to currents generated by ordinary apparatus, becomes a conductor under the influence of currents or impulses of enormously high electromotive force. By such means air strata, which are easily accessible, are rendered available for the production of many desired effects at distances. Although either method may be employed, it is obviously desirable that the disturbance should be as powerful as possible and should be transmitted with a minimal loss. The loss reduces greatly both the intensity and the number of the co-operative impulses, and since the initial intensity of each of these is necessarily limited, only an insignificant amount of energy is thus available for a single operation of the receiver. Furthermore the energy obtained through the cooperation of the impulses is in the form of an extremely rapid vibration and unsuitable for the operation of ordinary receivers. To overcome the limitations of the two methods mentioned, Tesla reproduces arbitrarily varied or intermittent disturbances or effects; transmits these disturbances through the air to a distant receiving station, utilizes the energy derived from such disturbances at the receiving station to charge a condenser, and uses the accumulated potential so obtained to operate a receiving device.
The apparatus which is employed at the receiving station consists in the combination of a storage device included in a circuit, connection points at a distance from the source of the disturbances and between which a difference of potential is created by such disturbances, a receiving circuit connected with the storage device, a receiver included in the receiving circuit, and a mechanism for closing the receiving circuit at any desired moment, thereby causing the receiver to be operated by the energy with which the storage device has been charged.
In another method the energy stored is not, as in the previous instance, obtained from the energy of the disturbance effect transmitted from a distance, but from an independent source. The method in general consists in charging a storage device with energy from an independent source, controlling the charge of the device by the action of the effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media and coincidently using the stored energy for operating a receiver. A condenser is used as the storage means.
The invisible radiations of the spectrum and of vacuum tubes are generally considered to be vibrations of extremely small wave length. These radiations posses the property of charging and discharging conductors of electricity, the discharge being particularly noticeable when the conductor upon which the rays impinge is negatively electrified. It is usually held that these radiations ionize or render conducting the atmosphere through which they are propagated. Tesla’s own experiments lead him, however, to conclusions more in accord with the theory he has already advanced, in which he holds that sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocities minute particles of matter which are strongly electrified, and therefore capable of charging an electrical conductor, or even if not so, of discharging an electrified conductor either by carrying off bodily its charge or otherwise.
Tesla has taken out a patent based on a discovery which he has made, that when rays or radiations of this kind are permitted to fall upon an insulated conducting body connected with one of the terminals of a condenser while the other terminal is made by independent means to receive or carry away electricity, a current flows into the condenser as long as the insulated body is exposed to the rays. Under certain conditions an indefinite accumulation of electrical energy takes place. This energy after a suitable time interval during which the rays are allowed to act, may manifest itself in a powerful discharge, which can be utilized for the operation or control of mechanical or electrical devices or rendered useful in many other ways. The radiant energy is directed upon an elevated conductor, connected with one of the armatures of the condenser, positively electrified by the invisible radiations. The electricity is carried off from the other armature by connecting it with the ground. The accumulated energy is discharged through a suitable receiver.”
SPACE FLOWING CURRENT
Very reputable experimenters besides Tesla continued claiming that “space flowing electricity” is the real electricity. Tesla’s classic demonstrations proved that rapid electrical impulses actually exceed the ability of fixed charges to transmit the applied forces. Charges lag where electrostatic forces continue propagating. One is compelled to see that electrostatic forces precede the movement of charges.
Tesla saw that electrostatic impulses could flow without line charges. His “zero current coils” operated simply because the charges themselves were immobilized. Electricity was shown to be more in the nature of a flowing force rather than a stream of massive particles. But what then was this “flowing current”?
In Tesla’s view, radiant electricity is a space flowing current, which is NOT made of electrons. Later Victorians believed that there was a substance, which both filled all space and permeated all matter. Several serious researchers claimed to have identified this gas. Notables, such as Mendeleev predicted the existence of several ultra-rare gases, which preceded hydrogen. These, he claimed, were inert gases. This is why they were rarely detected. The inert gases, which Mendeleev predicted, formed an atmosphere, which flooded all of space. These gaseous mixtures composed the Aether.
Tesla and others believed that both electrical and magnetic forces were actually streams of Aether gas, which had been fixated in matter. Materials were somehow “polarized” by various “frictive” treatments by which an Aether gas flow was induced in them. Most materials could maintain the flow indefinitely, since no work was required on their part. Matter had only to remain polarized, transducing the Aether flow. The Aether gas contained all the power. Unlimited power.
This Aether gas power manifested as the electromagnetic forces themselves, adequate reason to pursue the development of an Aether gas engine. Such an engine could run forever on the eternal kinetic energies of the Aether itself, it being both generated and driven by the stars.
Tesla believed that radiant electricity is composed of Aether gas. He based this belief on the fact that his zero current coils were not conducting the “slow and dense” charges usually observed in ordinary electrical circuits. Abrupt impulses produced distinctive and different effects … fluidic effects. The qualities ascribed by Tesla to “electricity” or things “electrical” in his numerous patent texts and press interviews are those, which refer to the Aether gas. Tesla did not refer to electron currents as “electricity”. He did not equate “electricity” with electron flow. Whenever Tesla spoke of “electrical” effects he always described their effusive, gaseous quality.
Tesla referred to space as the “ambient or natural medium”. Space, he claimed, was that which “conducts electricity”. He had found a means by which this gaseous electrical flow could be greatly concentrated, magnified, and directed. He saw that this radiant electricity was, in reality, a gaseous emanation. An Aetheric emanation. This is why he made constant reference to fluidic terminology throughout his lectures.
Resistance, volume, capacity, reservoir, surface area, tension, pressure, pressure release: these were the terms upon which Tesla relied throughout his presentations. The terminology of hydraulics. Tesla also recognized that because Aether was a gas, it had aerodynamic requirements.
Aether, in Tesla’s lexicon, was space flowing electricity: a gas of superlative and transcendent qualities. Aether was the electricity, which filled all of space, a vast reservoir of unsurpassable power. Motive, dynamic, and free for the taking. Aether gas technology would revolutionize the world. Aether gas engines would provide an eternal power source for the world. Science, industry, corporations, financial alignments, social orders, nations … everything would change.
Tesla’s Standing Waves
Before the turn of the century, Nikola Tesla had discovered and was utilizing a new type of electric wave. Tesla repeatedly stated his waves were non-Hertzian, and his wireless transmissions did not fall off as the square of the distance. His discovery was apparently so fundamental (and his intent to provide free energy to all humankind was so clear) that it was responsible for the withdrawal of his financial backing, his deliberate isolation, and the gradual removal of his name from the history books.
By 1914 or so, Tesla had been successfully isolated and was already nearly a “nonperson.” Thereafter Tesla lived in nearly total seclusion, occasionally surfacing (at his annual birthday party for members of the press) to announce the discovery of an enormous new source of free energy, the perfection of wireless transmission of energy without losses, fireball weapons to destroy whole armies and thousands of airplanes at hundreds of miles distance, and a weapon (the “Tesla Shield,” I’ve dubbed it ) that could provide an impenetrable defense and thus render war obsolete.
In my pursuit of Tesla’s secret, it gradually became apparent to me that present orthodox electromagnetic theory is seriously flawed in some fundamental respects. One of these is in the definition and use of f, the scalar electrostatic potential. It is this error which has hidden the long-sought unified field theory from the theorists.
In the theory of the scalar electrostatic potential (SEP), the idea is introduced of work accomplished on a charge brought in from a distance against the scalar field. The SEP is not a vector field, but is a scalar field. Indeed, scalar potential cannot of itself perform work on a charged mass; if it could do so, then tremendous force would exist on every mass due to the extremely high SEP of the vacuum itself. Only a differential of SEP between two spatial points can produce force or accomplish work. (Rigorously, a differential of scalar potential between two spatial points constitutes a vector. Only a vector can produce force and do work.)
Also, work can only be done on a mass. Further, it takes time* to move an electron or other charged mass between two spatial points, and so the work performed by a spatial differential of the f-field requires time. Rigorously, the delta SEP is voltage, not SEP per se, and is directly related to E field. The entire voltage concept depends on the work performed in moving a mass, after that mass has moved. The idea of “voltage” always implies the existence of a steady differential of f between two spatial points for a finite length of time, and it also involves the assumption of a flow of actual mass having occurred. SEP, on the one hand, is always a single-point function; on the other hand, difference in potential (i.e., V) is always a two point function, as is any vector.
Yet many graduate level physics and electromagnetics papers and texts erroneously confuse f and V in the static case! Such an interpretation is of course quite incorrect.
* Two spatial points involve at least ?t = ?L/c in time. All vectors and gradients involve 2 separated spatial points, and thus present timelines in 4-space. f4 is a point, not a line, in 4-space.
Another common assumption in present EM theory — that the electrostatic potential (f0) of the normal vacuum is zero — has no legitimate basis. In fact, we know f0 is nonzero because the vacuum is filled with enormous amounts of fluctuating virtual state activity, including incredible charge fluctuations. And by virtue of its point definition, f0 must be the “instantaneous intensity” of these fluctuations — but both in space and time. The scalar electrostatic potential is therefore the “instantaneous stress” on spacetime itself, and a measure of the intensity of the virtual state flux through a 4-dimensional spacetime point.
Potential theory was largely developed in the 1800′s, before the theory of relativity. Time flowrate was then regarded as immutable. Accordingly, electrostatic “intensity” was chosen as “spatial intensity,” with the connotation of “spatial flux density.” This assumes a constant, immutable rate of flow of time, which need not be true at all if we believe relativity. Such a spatial “point” intensity is actually a “line” in 4-space, and not a 4-dimensional “point” at all. Thus the spatial potential — f3 — is a very special case of the real spacetime potential — f4, or charge and electromagnetic theory today is accordingly a special case of the real 4-space electromagnetism that actually exists! Note also that charge is a 4-dimensional concept.
Now mass is a spatial, 3-dimensional concept. Rigorously, mass does not exist in time — masstime exists in time. Mass and charge are thus of differing dimensionalities!
Also, according to quantum mechanics, the charge of a particle — e.g., of an electron — is due to the continual flux of virtual particles given off and absorbed by the observable particle of mass. Thus charge also is conceptually a measure of the virtual flux density, and directly related to f. Further, since the charge exists in time, it is the charge of a particle of spatial mass that gives it the property of masstime, or existing in time.
Here a great confusion and fundamental error has been thrown into the present EM theory by the equating of “charge” and “charged mass.” As we have seen, the two things are really very different indeed.
To speak of a spatial “amount” of charge erroneously limits the basic EM theory to a fixed time flowrate condition (which of course it was considered to be, prior to Einstein’s development of relativity). Thus when the limited present theory encounters a “relativistic” case (where the time flowrate changes), all sorts of extraordinary corrections must be introduced. The real problem, of course, is with the fundamental definitions of electrostatic potential and charge. The spatial “amount” of charge (i.e. the coulomb) as we presently erroneously use the term, is actually the spatial amount of observable “charged mass.” To correct the theory, one must introduce the true 4-space SEP and separate the definitions of charge and charged mass.
Only when a mass is moved does one have work – and voltage or vector fields. (The reason one has voltage and E field connected to a normal electrostatically charged object in the laboratory is because an excess of charged-particle masses are assembled on the object, and these masses are in violent motion! A true static charge would have no E field at all. )